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Solomon S the phd lecturer!!lmfao

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Male Re: Solomon S the phd lecturer!!lmfao

Post by CRUNCH on Mon Aug 19, 2013 11:07 am

".......HIS WORK........    "
LMAO.....NOW IM SURE YOU WILL ALL FEEL THE SAME WAY I DO, CONSIDERING THE FACT THIS DUDE WAS UNABLE TO DECYPHER THE SIMPLEST OF SENTENCES THAT A TEN YEAR OLD COULD............AND HE CLAIMS TO HAVE WRITTEN THE PAPER WORK BELOW!LMAO........
Abstract— There are several evidence to show that the
implementation of electronic commerce in day to day business
activities serves an essentially important avenues for business
people to expand their customer base, enhance client
satisfaction, cut down expenditure, and improve organizational
performance. This universal occurrence is not as aggressive in
emerging nations hence, small and medium sized companies are
under pressure to provide Internet services at their own
expenditure because of inadequate public support and
infrastructural inadequacy. The adoption of electronic
commerce among Nigerians is experiencing a slow pace despite
the massive population density of the country which interest
parties’ belief should have been a benefit. This current research
studied the factors hindering the adoption of e-commerce among
Nigerians. Four constructs such as government policy and
support, socio-economic conditions, socio-cultural factors, and
infrastructure conditions. The researchers used a quantitative
method to collect data by distributing 150 questionnaires to
some international students of Nigerian origin studying in
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. The filled questionnaires were
collected and analyzed with Statistical Package for Social
Sciences (SPSS) version 16. The finding of this research shows
that poor infrastructural facilities are the main factor hindering
the adoption of electronic commerce among Nigerians.
Index Terms—Electronic Commerce; Information
Communication Technology; Adoption; Nigeria, Universiti
Teknologi Malaysia.
I. INTRODUCTION
It is a highly acknowledged fact that the revolution in the
information communications technology industry has a direct
relationship with the way businesses are conducted.
Researchers have also argued that the introduction of
electronic commerce into business transactions has further
been noted as among the most momentary development ever
witnessed in the world of business [1, 2, 3]. Current research
shows that over two billion people had access to the Internet
Manuscript received July 15, 2013.
O. Solomon was with the Faculty of Management, Universiti Teknologi
Malaysia. He is now with the Faculty of Management, Business and
Entrepreneurship, Universiti Tun Husein Onn, Batu Pahat, Johor Malaysia
(e-mail: solomom467@yahoo.com).
M. A. Ajagbe is with the Faculty of Management, Universiti Teknologi
Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor-Malaysia (e-mail: ajagbetun@yahoo.com).
globally. Miniwatts marketing group [4] in their current
report mentioned that maintaining the global usage of the
Internet has increased by over 580% between 2000 and 2011.
Balogun [5] positioned that electronic commerce is the
adoption of the Internet to buy, sell or supports and services.
Grandon and Pearson [6] perceived electronic commerce to
be businesses conducted through electronic data transmission
over the Internet and World Wide Web. This mode of
transacting businesses allows for high level of product
customization and permits firms to improve client services
[7]. A essential advantage of e-commerce is access to world
markets which enables companies to expand their coverage.
Balogun [5] further added that the Internet enables increase in
awareness, visibility and opportunity for companies to
promote its goods and services.
Several previous studies have investigated the adoption of
e-commerce in different sectors in developing countries, for
example Nigeria [1, 2, 8, 3]. However, Onifade [9]
specifically mentioned that E-commerce acceptance is at the
developmental phase in Nigeria. He concluded that the
acceptance of e-commerce is noticeably growing in the
country particularly among the large number of literate
people. However, small and medium firms are still grappling
to provide Internet services at their own expenditure as a
result of insufficient public support [9, 8]. In the past years,
access to the Web in developing countries was mainly limited
to e-mail communication [10]. Even though there are some
studies on electronic commerce adoption in developing
countries, some gaps still needs to be filled in some countries
such as Nigeria in respect to the massive implementation of
e-commerce in carrying out day to day business transactions.
Other authors also added that insufficient research on
e-commerce activity exists in developing countries, thus it is
inappropriate to relate results from research conducted in
developed countries applicability to developing countries [11,
12]. Moreso, that the findings from developed countries are
not directly transferable to developing countries. The
identification of factors hindering e-commerce adoption, aids
government and businesses to overcome factors that later
would create a positive environment that will encourage
e-commerce adoption. Research on information and
communications technology (ICT) and particularly
e-commerce has focused on developed countries [6, 13].
Several studies have noted factors that influence individuals
and firms to adopt e-commerce [6, 14]. These factors are
Drivers of E-Commerce Adoption among Nigerians
Oluyinka Solomon1 and Musibau Akintunde Ajagbe2 (Member, IACSIT)
1 Faculty of Technology Management and Business and 2Faculty of Management
1University Tun Hussien Onn Malaysia, 86400, Batu pahat, Johor Bahru-Malaysia
and 2Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
81310, Skudai, Johor-Malaysia
1Solomon467@yahoo.com and 2ajagbetun@yahoo.com
technological characteristics, social characteristics, and
environmental characteristics, time, relative advantage of
e-commerce, IT knowledge, and e-commerce compatibility.
However, referring to previous studies in empirical literature,
this study intends to identify factors hindering the adoption of
e-commerce among Nigerians. This particular research shall
focus on four factors namely; infrastructure barriers,
socio-cultural barriers, socio-economic barriers and
government policy and support.
11 DIFFUSION OF INNOVATIONS
Diffusion is the process by which an innovation is
communicated through certain channels over time among
members of a social system [15, 14]. Diffusion of Innovation
(DOI) adoption is a process of lowering business
unpredictability. To limit unpredictable situations about a
technology, an individual will gather and synthesize
information about the technology. The result of this process
is beliefs about using the technology, beliefs then cause
individuals to accept or reject the technology. Roger’s [16]
definition of diffusion contains four essential components in
the diffusion of innovation process. These elements include
the innovation, communication channels, time and the social
systems. These components are a bit simplistic and follow a
basic communication process. However previous research
found that it is useful in separating the message from channels
and the potential adopters. Kurnia [14] represents a
compilation of the majority of the previous diffusion theory
research which could be useful to investigate any kind of
innovation. The innovation diffusion theory has been widely
used in IT acceptance and has been tested on information
technologies such as operating system and educational
system [13, 17]. Several researchers used DOI characteristics
to study technology infrastructure readiness on technology
acceptance in Taiwan; a face to face survey of 99 firms shows
that readiness of technology infrastructure influence
technology acceptance [8, 17]. It was further explained that
online shoppers use DOI via the e-commerce to influence the
sales turnover in U.S stores. Similarly, [18] also applied the
characteristics of DOI to argue that business is facing an
exponential growth in sales and purchases electronically,
whether locally, regionally or internationally due to spread of
internet service at the state level. Some of the characteristics
of DOI are suitable for the current study. DOI has been used
in many previous studies at the level of individuals and firms.
Moreover, its factors help to understand the trend of the
decision makers towards the implementation of new
mechanisms in the workplace, particularly the information
technology mechanisms such as e-commerce [13, 19].
A Understanding Innovations Diffusion in Developing
Countries
It is important to understand what constitutes innovation in
the developing countries. An innovation may be well known
in one place, but virtually unknown in another due to
insufficient awareness [9]. Innovations processes in
developing countries were poorly constructed and very
fragmented. In Nigeria for instance, a large number of
micro-enterprises operate in the informal sector of the
country, and a more or less important number of
foreign-based firms were disconnected from the rest of the
economy [20, 17]. There are limited researches on innovation
diffusions in developing countries and universal systems
poorly connected to local realities, particularly to labor
market needs and opportunities. The major hurdles of
technology innovation developing process are the
unavailability of technological support services and
infrastructure. This study consider a clearer understanding of
what innovation means in developing countries as an
important factor that precedes the adoption of e-commerce.
B History of e-commerce and telecommunication in
Nigeria
The middle of 1990s witnessed the emergence of
electronic commerce industry in Nigeria when there was
an increase in awareness of the Internet and
telecommunications industry [21]. The development of
this sector was slow until the introduction of Internet
banking at the beginning of the 21st Century. This is
because an e-commerce service is dependent on people’s
ability to make use of this new innovation. Services like
the electronic cash transfer have been found to have a
huge impact on the development of e-commerce in
Nigeria [19]. The growth and acceptance of credit/debit
cards and Automated Teller Machines (ATMs) also gave
a testimonial to the country’s pledging on e-commerce
adoption. Introduction of e-payment like MasterCard,
InterSwitch, VisaCard and e-transact made Internet
transaction easy in terms of cash payment, cash
withdrawal or cash transfer anywhere in the country, and
also purchases of goods and services could be made
through this medium. This is a welcome development,
especially in the light of the recent increasing growth and
development of Western shopping malls in the Nigeria.
E-commerce offers great benefits to any economy and
continues to gain acceptance in Nigeria, the initial divide
between Nigerian consumers and the rest of the global
market were bridged as a result of this [22]. Authors
posit that African countries are usually considered as
parts of developing countries which are generally behind
in different development indexes [23]. Before 1998 there
were just a few dial-up e-mail providers in Nigeria and a
couple of Internet service providers (ISPs) that operated
on slow links. The present ISPs provide users with online
advertising opportunities, Internet banking security and
very-small-aperture terminal (VSAT) services. More
than 400 ISPs have been licensed as well as a number of
data carriers [24]. Research on Nigeria found that in
other to improve on e-commerce adoption in Nigeria, the
Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) engaged in the
consolidation of the banking industry in order to
strengthen, integrate and harmonize the activities of the
sector and make them more capable to engage in global
operations. Introduction of this policy by CBN led to the
drastic reduction in fraud and improved the confidence
of the consumer on Internet transactions. The vast
improvement in telecommunications services in the
country is further stressed by a surge in private telecom
operators (PTOs) offering “fixed wireless services”,
which offer data and voice transfer.
Information Technology is the cornerstone for national
survival and development in a global ambience that
changes rapidly, and challenges nations to design brave
and courageous initiatives to address a host of essential
socio-economic exigencies such as reliable
infrastructure, skilled human resources, open
government and other important factors of capacity
building [25, 26, 3]. In addition, research found that a
nation’s IT policy add value to human capital
development and that reliable infrastructure is the key
instrument and means of assessment, planning, change
management and development to achieve sustainable
growth [27, 5]. It is for this reason that every country has
a national progressive IT policy and implementation
strategy to address emerging global reality aside and
become a victim of the digital divide. A developing
nation like Nigeria that aspires to participate effectively
and become a key player in the emerging IT era needs to
have in place, a highly efficient IT strategy driven by a
vibrant national IT policy [27, 1]. As a result of the
above, the Nigerian Information Technology Policy was
put in place in the year 2005 with the aim to provide IT
resources, promote resourceful national development,
guarantees that the country benefits maximally, and
contributes meaningfully by providing the global
solutions to the challenges of the IT era. In conclusion,
Nigerian Information Technology Development Agency
(NITDA) was established to implement the IT Policy,
regulate, monitor, evaluate and verify progress basis
under the supervision and coordination of the Federal
Ministry of Science and Technology.
C Barriers to e-commerce adoption in developing
countries
Implementing successful e-commerce service is not easy
as most people might think. Empirical literatures found
that e-commerce is an influence on developing countries
[28]. Despite the fact that many developing countries
have abundant cheap human capital; there are still other
areas of concern. The following section discusses
common barriers that hinder e-commerce adoption in
developing countries based on [29] framework.
Infrastructural barriers: Studies have reported that
public infrastructures such as roads, utilities, electricity
supply, and water sewage among others are the obstacles
hindering e-commerce adoption in developing countries.
Infrastructural barriers such as telecommunication were
identified as one of the main barriers hindering the
effective adoption of e-commerce in emerging nations
[8]. Authors believe it is a result of the challenge of
acquiring suitable technologies to business
requirements, lack of education and expertise about the
system requirements. These barriers could prevent firms’
especially individual users to adopt e-commerce
applications [29].The first infrastructural factor
hindering e-commerce adoption is telecommunication,
connecting to the Internet in most developing countries
is not steadfast because of poor telephone connections
and irregular electric power supply. Most developing
countries are not prepared for e-commerce, due to lack
of network infrastructure, especially among individual
users and business people.
Socio-cultural barriers: Some of the characteristics of
the local cultures may pose significant challenges to the
adoption of electronic commerce in some countries [29].
They indicate that socio-cultural issues are part of the
problems of the implementation of electronic commerce
in developing countries as e-commerce goes contrary to
experience and culture. Ratnasingham [30] investigated
and found trust to be an essential requirement for secured
electronic trading. Efendioglu et al. [25] argued that
adoption of e-commerce may be hindered by individual
consumers who think that counterfeit products are sold
on-line. Highlighting further that lack of transactional
trust between parties is another important factor in the
discussion of electronic transactions. Lawrence [26]
added that most users in developing countries are not
willing to provide sensitive financial information over
the internet.
Socio-economic barriers: Previous research has shown
that some of the socio-economic features of certain
nations may pose important challenges to the
implementation of electronic style of trading in those
countries [31]. They indicate that economic situations
are among essential characteristics hindering adoption of
e-commerce in developing countries. Kshetri [10] stated
that, economic conditions in developing countries are
widely identified as major hindrances to e-commerce
adoption. Lawrence [26] argued that, gross domestic
product and per capita income are common indicators
for the economic conditions of a country. This was
believed to be due to the high rate of access charge
relative to income and earning level of an average
citizen, and this invariably affects the use of the internet.
Government Policy and Support: Dewan and Kraemer
[11] found that, political and government policies may
pose some significant challenges to e-commerce
adoption in developing countries. They opine that, active
government intention in marketplace and monetary
policy is the best method of ensuring country’s growth
and political stability. Government initiatives are
important in the adoption of e-commerce, information
technology and other communications in general.
Government initiatives can be in terms of promotion of
ICT usage, education and the establishment of adequate
regulatory framework for e-commerce [6]. In addition,
political conditions had been an issue hindering
e-commerce adoption in developing countries and most
researches focus on global problems of modern society,
socio-political development, social dynamics, structure
and stratification of the society [2]. Most of the political
conditions affecting the whole society are regulated
through government policy.
111 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
Several studies have noted factors that influence
individuals and firms to adopt electronic commerce [14, 10,
23, 19]. Examples of these factors are technological
characteristics, social characteristics, and environmental
characteristics, time, relative advantage of e-commerce, IT
knowledge, and e-commerce compatibility. Based on the
previous studies, this study intends to identify factors
hindering the adoption of e-commerce among Nigerians.
Specifically, four factors namely infrastructure barriers,
socio-cultural barriers, socio-economic barriers and
government policy and support were investigated in this study.
The research question adopted for this study seek to find out
whether the aforementioned four constructs do actually hinder
the adoption of e-commerce among Nigerians and to
understand which of the constructs contribute the most and
the least to e-commerce adoption among Nigerians.
1V METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY
The entire population for this study is 191 Nigerian
postgraduate students studying at Universiti Teknologi
Malaysia, Skudai campus. This population of respondents is
perceived to be appropriate for two reasons, e-commerce
studies show high internet literacy among the young and
educated population, and being overseas, they are believed to
be very much conversant with online transactions,
particularly, online banking. In order to choose a reliable
sample for the study, the researchers relied on past authors
such as [32] who proposed 20 subjects per variable as been
appropriate for quantitative sample selection, hence, this
study assumes that 140 respondents is adequate for reliable
findings. The study adopted a 5 point likert scale
questionnaire as a design for this study (1=strongly disagree
to 5= strongly agree) to measure all the factors. A pilot test
was conducted prior to the final questionnaire distribution to
test the clarity of the questions, examine the reliability and the
validity of the instrument. The internal consistency of the
responses from the 30 students was investigated using SPSS
16.0 for windows. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for all
constructs is greater than 0.70, indicating that the instrument
is reliable. Table 1 shows the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient
result for this study.
TABLE I: CRONBACH’S ALPHA COEFFICIENT RESULTS
Measurement No of
Items
Cronbach’s
Alpha
1. Government policy and
support
6 0.759
2. Socio- economic condition 6 0.762
3. Socio- cultural condition 5 0.734
4. Infrastructural technology 4 0.714
5. E-commerce adoption 5 0.851
V DATA ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS
This study conducted a factor analysis and multiple regression
analysis in order to identify the independent variables that
best explain e-commerce adoption among Nigerians. For the
missing data, a total of 150 questionnaires were distributed
for this study. One hundred and forty-three questionnaires of
150 were returned, indicating 95.3% response rate. Three
responses were excluded for missing value because the
respondents did not answer 70% of the questions. Therefore,
140 responses were used for the statistical analysis. This study
chose histogram and normal probability plot to assess the
normality of the data over other box plot and stem and leaf
plot statistical techniques as indicated in figure 1 and 2 below.
Figure 1 Histogram for the study
Figure 2 Normal P Plot for the study
Note: a, predictors: (Constant) MySE, MySC, MyTI,
MyGP
b. Dependent variable: MyINTO, Note: Scale: 1=
strongly disagree, 5 = strongly agree
Result from the above figures shows that if the value for
skewness falls within certain range, the skewness is
considered not seriously violated [31], the standard error of
skewness is 0.205 and the skewness statistic is -0.415.
Therefore, 2 x 0.205 = 0.410, this result indicates normal
because 0.415 falls within the range of 0.410. Similar
procedure is used to determine the appropriateness of the
Kurtosis, (standard error of kurtosis is 0.407 and the kurtosis
statistic is -0.824, thus 2 x 0.407 = 0.814).
Furthermore, the outliers are examined through the scatter
plot graph which reported identifiable patterns of responses
and in turn, indicated a relatively normal distribution. Figure
3 shows the scatter plot of regression standardized residual for
the dependent variable shows that there is no outstanding
values (outliers) shown in the plot.
Figure 3 Scatter Plot of Regression
a, predictors: (Constant) MySE, MySC, MyTI, MyGP
b. Dependent variable: MyINTO
Factor analysis was used to determine if the number of factors
and the loadings of measured (indicator) variables on them
conform to what is expected on the basis of pre-developed
theory as mentioned earlier. Factor loading should be 0.7 or
higher to confirm that independent variables identified a
priori are represented by a particular factor. Correlation
matrix, factor extraction and rotation are used as an
exploratory technique to summarize the structure of a set of
variables, to test the reliability of the construct, and serve as
additional means of determining the appropriateness of the
factor analytic model. KMO and Bartlett’s test of sphericity
was run to determine if items are tapping into the same
construct and to test the reliability of the constructs.
Components matrix, KMO and Bartlett’s test sphericity are
significant which explains the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure
of sampling adequacy greater than 0.6 and acceptable for
further analysis. An examination of factor loading identified
items that did not load as expected, and was removed from
further analysis.
Multiple regressions were performed after the measures of
sampling adequacy which reveals that all our measures of
sampling adequacy are well above acceptable. The
independent variables are the mean scores of lack of
government policies (MyGP), poor socio-economic
conditions (MySE), unsupportive socio-cultural factors
(MySC) and poor technology infrastructural factors (MyTI),
and the dependent variable is e-commerce adoption
(MyINTO). The regression analysis as reported in Table 2c,
explained that there is a significant relationship between
e-commerce adoption and lack of government policies and
support, poor socio-economic conditions, poor socio-cultural
factors and poor technology infrastructural factors. These
variables explained 50.1% of the variability in e-commerce
adoption F (4,135) = 33.932, p ≤ 0.05. The result suggests that
3 out of 4 factors that were used in this study to an extent
hinder e-commerce adoption among Nigerians. As indicated
in Table 2a, b and c below, regression coefficient table
reported poor technology infrastructural factors (β = 0.576, p
≤ 0.001) contributed most among the four factors that hinders
e-commerce adoption among Nigerians, followed by
socio-economic conditions (β = 0.480, p ≤0.001) and
government policies and support (β = 0.337, p≤0.002).
Table 2a Model Summary for Multiple Regressions
a. Predictors: (Constant), MySE, MySC, MyTI, MyGP
b. Dependent Variable: MyINTO
Table 2b ANOVA
Table 2c Regression coefficient
VI DISCUSSIONS AND CONCLUSIONS
This section presents the summary of findings,
discussions, contribution and conclusions of the study. The
purpose of this study was to examine factors hindering
e-commerce adoption among Nigerians. Four factors
namely, government policies and support, socio-economic
factors, socio-cultural factors and technology infrastructures
were used to examine the adoption. Furthermore, the
developed study hypothesis used to examine the intended
study questions are: Lack of government support and policy
hinders e-commerce adoption among Nigerians, Poor
socio-economic condition hinders e-commerce adoption
among Nigerians, Poor socio-cultural factors hinder
e-commerce adoption and Poor technology infrastructure
factors hinders e-commerce adoption among Nigerians. As
discussed in the previous sections of this study, multiple
regression analysis was conducted to test the hypotheses
stated above. The level of significance of 0.05 was used to
determine the level of significance. The overall findings of
Model R
R
Square
Adjusted R
Square
Std. Error of
the Estimate
1
.708
a
.501 .487 .70331
Model
Sum of
Squares
Df
Mean
Square
F Sig.
Regression
67.137 4 16.784
33.93
2
.000a
Residual 66.777 135 .495
Total 133.914 139
Model
Unstandardized
Coefficients
Standardized
Coefficients T Sig.
B Std. Error Beta
(Consta
nt)
1.101 .257 4.278 .000
MyGP .233 .075 .337 3.110 .002
MySC .039 .052 .054 .754 .452
MyTI .477 .061 .576 7.759 .000
MySE .322 .077 .480 4.182 .000
Note: a predictors: (Constant),
MySE, MySC, MyGP, MyTI,
b. Dependent variable: MyINTO
the study indicate that technology infrastructure,
socio-economic condition and government policies and
support hinder e-commerce adoption among Nigerians.
This study concludes that as the e-commerce paradigm in
business transactions shifts from developed countries such as
Britain, U.S, Japan and Canada to developing nations, the
findings of this study contributes to the limited study on
e-commerce in developing countries and relevant to future
research on e-commerce and associated areas. Technology
infrastructure indicated the most significant factor hindering
e-commerce adoption among Nigerians while socio-cultural
factor represented the least. Also, priority considerations to
improve e-commerce adoption focused on technology
infrastructure and solutions to poor energy supply. The study
provides a yardstick for provision for appropriate strategies,
suitable policies and infrastructures to assist Nigerian
businesses and consumers in their transactions via
e-commerce. The respondents interviewed for this research
cut across the six geopolitical zones of Nigeria strengthening
generalization of the findings, although with high
representation of males among the study participants. Future
research should look towards population sample drawn from
commerce oriented individuals and e-commerce adoption in
other developing countries. The results of identified and
investigated factors in e-commerce adoption namely: lack of
government policies and support, socio-economic factors,
socio-cultural factors and technology, supported all the
hypotheses except socio-culture factors. Depicting the
challenges in terms of government policies and supports,
socio-economic situations and technology infrastructure in
place mostly centered cost effect. Provision of technology
infrastructures and IT education at primary levels of
education will encourage e-commerce adoption irrespective
of the current limitations with limited existing infrastructures,
poor economic situation and poor socio-cultural conditions.
.
2Corresponding Author: ajagbetun@yahoo.com
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[15] M. E. Rogers, “Diffusion of innovations (4th ed.). The Free Press New
York, 1995.
[16] M. E. Rogers, “Diffusion of Innovations (1st ed)” The Free Press New
York, 1962.
[17] E. Margaret and Q. Zheng, “China and Nigeria, A Powerful South-
South Alliance, West Africa Challenges” The Sahel and West Africa
Club Secretariat, Reported 2011.
[18] J. Brancheau., C. James and J. Wetherbe, “The Adoption of
Spreadsheet Software: Testing Innovation Diffusion Theory in
the Context of End User Computing” Information Systems Research,
vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 115-143, 1990.
[19] C. Alexander, “Right Step towards Improving Power Suplly in
Nigeria” Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa, vol. 13, no. 2,
pp. 119-138., 2012.
[20] O. Oyelaran, (2006). “Learning To Compete in African Industry
Institutions and Technology”, Hampshire GU 113HR, England,
Ashgate Publishing Limited. Pp.120-161, 2006.
[21] M. Martin, “Citation: Strategic Challenges for E-Commerce
Promotion in Central Africa” Social Science Research Network, vol.
30, 2003.
[22] K. C. Ayo and A. A. Oni, “An Empirical Investigation of the Level of
Users’Acceptance of E-Banking in Nigeria” Journal of Internet
Banking and Commerce, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 1-13, 2010.
[23] A. S. Al-Somali, ”Electronic Commerce Adoption: A Case Study of
Business Practice to Business in Saudi Arabia, Thesis, pp. 161-170,
2011.
[24] S. L. Sanusi, ”The Nigerian Banking Industry: What went wrong and
the way forward. Being a Convocation Lecture delivered at the
Convocation Square, Bayero University, Kano, on Friday 26
February, 2010 to mark the Annual Convocation Ceremony of the
University).
[25] Efendioglu, A. M & Yip, V. F. (2004). "Chinese Culture and
E-commerce: An Exploratory Study: Interacting with Computers,
16(1), 45- 62.
[26] E. J. Lawrence, “The Growth of E-Commerce in Developing
Countries: An Exploratory Study of Opportunities and Challenges for
SMEs” International Journal of ICT Research, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 15-28,
2011.
[27] X. Luo and J. Zhang, “Examining Multi-Dimensional Trust and Multi
Faceted Risk in Initial Acceptance of Emerging Technologies: An
Empirical Study of Mobile Banking Services”. Decision Support
Systems, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 224-234, 2010.
[28] S. Al-Ghaith, and A. Sandhu, “Factors Influencing the Adoption and
Usage of Online Services in Saudi Arabia” The Electronic Journal of
Information Systems in Developing Countries, vol. 40, no. 3, pp.
168-195, 2010.
[29] E. J. Lawrence, and T. A. Usman, “Barriers to E-commerce in
Developing Countries” Information, Society and Justice, vol. 3, no. 1,
pp. 23-35, 2010.
[30] P. Ratnasingham, (1998) "The Importance of Trust in Electronic
Commerce" Internet Research, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 313 – 321, 1998.
[31] G. D. Kleinbaum., L. L. Kupper and E. K.. Muller, “Applied
Regression Analysis and Multivariable Method” Lorong Chaun, vol.

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Post by CRUNCH on Mon Aug 19, 2013 11:16 am

AN EXAMPLE OF A SCAMMERS SCAM!.....SENT BY GUESS WHO?????????
oladele olukunle
3/06/2013
[Keep this message at the top of your inbox]
To: XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
Picture of oladele olukunle

10:30MAINSTAY SUITES HOTELS EMPLOYMENT CANADA

Hi, is a pleasure to let you know about the on-going 2013/2014 Job recruitment’s in Canadian Mainstay Suites Hotels. The hotel management is interested in able foreign men/women and group from various countries that will like to work with the Mainstay Suites Hotels Toronto Canada. Immigration support will be rendered by the hotel to enable the applicant’s obtain a Canadian visa in their very country while the accommodation & feeding will be provided by the management through out the working period.
For more details email (mainstaysuiteshotelscanada@yahoo.ca)
Regards
Christy

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Post by CRUNCH on Mon Aug 19, 2013 11:18 am

Solomon‏

To see messages related to this one, group messages by conversation.
oladele olukunle
25/05/2013
[Keep this message at the top of your inbox]
To: XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
Picture of oladele olukunle

Am happy to have your mail and we can chat here all the time

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Post by CRUNCH on Mon Aug 19, 2013 11:19 am


CRUNCH

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Male Re: Solomon S the phd lecturer!!lmfao

Post by CRUNCH on Mon Aug 19, 2013 11:21 am

RE: Trick‏

To see messages related to this one, group messages by conversation.
3/06/2013
[Keep this message at the top of your inbox]
To: oladele olukunle


IF I RECEIVED A LETTER LIKE THIS I WOULDNT BOTHER ANSWERING IT!......I HAVE NO INTENTION TO TRAVEL FOR A START, AND I WOULD WONDER FOR A START WHY IT WOULD BE SENT TO ME ?...........FROM SOMEONE I DONT KNOW?
AND PEOPLE BELIEVE THIS?.............AND THEN THEY GO THERE?.........ARE THEY NUTS?.LOL....WELL MAYBE SOME PEOPLE WOULD BELIEVE IT...........I DONT THINK I WOULD THOUGH.


Date: Sun, 2 Jun 2013 20:38:01 -0700
From: solomon467@yahoo.com
Subject: Trick
To:XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX

10:30MAINSTAY SUITES HOTELS EMPLOYMENT CANADA

Hi, is a pleasure to let you know about the on-going 2013/2014 Job recruitment’s in Canadian Mainstay Suites Hotels. The hotel management is interested in able foreign men/women and group from various countries that will like to work with the Mainstay Suites Hotels Toronto Canada. Immigration support will be rendered by the hotel to enable the applicant’s obtain a Canadian visa in their very country while the accommodation & feeding will be provided by the management through out the working period.
For more details email (mainstaysuiteshotelscanada@yahoo.ca)
Regards
Christy


Last edited by CRUNCH on Mon Aug 19, 2013 2:16 pm; edited 1 time in total

CRUNCH

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Post by CRUNCH on Mon Aug 19, 2013 11:24 am

tricks‏

oladele olukunle
3/06/2013
[Keep this message at the top of your inbox]
To:XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
Picture of oladele olukunle

MAINSTAY SUITES HOTELS EMPLOYMENT CANADA

Hi, is a pleasure to let you know about the on-going 2013/2014 Job recruitment’s in Canadian Mainstay Suites Hotels. The hotel management is interested in able foreign men/women and group from various countries that will like to work with the Mainstay Suites Hotels Toronto Canada. Immigration support will be rendered by the hotel to enable the applicant’s obtain a Canadian visa in their very country while the accommodation & feeding will be provided by the management through out the working period.
For more details email (mainstaysuiteshotelscanada@yahoo.ca)
Regards
Christy




Dear XXXXXXXX the above is one of the scammer Tricks
Solomon

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Male Re: Solomon S the phd lecturer!!lmfao

Post by CRUNCH on Mon Aug 19, 2013 11:25 am




AFTER QUESTIONED ABOUT THIS "CONFERENCE".......ITS DISCOVERED THIS ISNT SOLOMON......BUT "HIS FRIEND"..LMFAO...........


Last edited by CRUNCH on Mon Aug 19, 2013 2:05 pm; edited 1 time in total

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Male Re: Solomon S the phd lecturer!!lmfao

Post by CRUNCH on Mon Aug 19, 2013 11:53 am







THIS IS THE ADDRESS OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMPANY THAT IS IS ALSO CONNECTED TO THE INFORMATION FOR PAYMENT TO THE CONFERENCE.......NOT A BUSINESS AS STIPULATED, BUT A HOME.???????????AND OF COURSE ITS FOR SALE AS WELL??.HMMMMMMMM








AND THIS IS WHAT YA GET AT THAT ADDRESS ??............INTERESTING ISNT IT...........ITS THE HOUSE ABOVE THATS FOR SALE!


Last edited by CRUNCH on Mon Aug 19, 2013 2:01 pm; edited 2 times in total

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Post by CRUNCH on Mon Aug 19, 2013 11:57 am




31 BLAKE STREET BERWICK, MELB AUSTRALIA...............INTERESTING EH?>>>>>>>>YES ITS ANOTHER INTERNATIONAL COMPANY ADDRESS AS WELL!>>>>>>>>STRANGE ISNT IT THAT THESE TWO HOMES ARE BOTH INTERNATIONAL BUSINESSES DONT YOU THINK?

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Post by CRUNCH on Mon Aug 19, 2013 12:06 pm

Conference registration fee varies from US$ 500 to 850 depending on the choice of events or package by the delegates. However, there is special Registration Package which includes basic registration fee, conference dinner and publication of papers in either online journal or in both print & online journal. In addition, all fees include hot Buffet lunch and arrival, morning and afternoon break foods and tea/coffee for two days. Please contact us in advance if the conference fee will be late so that we can plan for your attendance. There is special discount which varies from 5% to 10% who takes early registration (see the policy below).

Schedule of Fees

Code Description Fee ($AUD)

A Basic Registration fee (includes arrival tea, morning and afternoon tea and buffet lunch) 500

B Student registration fee (includes arrival tea, morning and afternoon tea and buffet lunch) 475

B1 Doctoral Symposium (half day seminar) 100

C Presentation of 2nd Paper by same author 80

D Conference Dinner (optional) 100

E 1 Lunch or 1 Dinner ticket for accompanying person (DOES NOT include co-authors) 100

F Co-Author Registration Fee (if at least one author takes basic registration) 400

G Online Publication in accepted journals 200

H Publication in accepted print journals (plus online) 300

I Discounted package-1 which includes A, D & G 750

J Discounted package-2 which includes A, D & H 850

K Discounted package-3 which includes B, D & G 725

L Discounted package-4 which includes B, D & GH 825

Special Discount:

a. 10 % for registration by 26 August 2013

b. 5% for registration in between 27 August 2013 – 13 September 2013




Cancellation Policy

There is a AUD $150 fee on cancellations received prior to 28 October 2013. There will be no refunds on cancellations received after 28 October 2013. The authors will be provided with receipt of payment and a letter/certificate of participation upon registering at the conference venue.


AHEM.!!!!!!!!!!..........HE SENDS THE VICTIM,,,,,,THE PRICE LIST!!COS  YOU KNOW THE POOR GUYS REAL SHORT OF CASH..AND TO FURTHER HIS EDUCATION IN HIS PHD....HE NEEDS ASSISTANCE  WHOSE GUNNA HELP THE IMBECILE THEN HUH?>>>>>>>>>>TSK TSK TSK lol! lol! lol! lol! lol! lol! lol! lol! lol! lol! lol! lol! lol! lol! lol! lol! lol! lol! lol! lol! lol! lol! 
WELL WE KNOW ONE THING DONT WE GIRLS?>>>>>>>ITS NOT US!!!!!!!!!!!!!LMFAO



Last edited by CRUNCH on Mon Aug 19, 2013 2:11 pm; edited 2 times in total

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Post by CRUNCH on Mon Aug 19, 2013 12:18 pm

oladele olukunle
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   Fw: paper receiving‏

oladele olukunle
15/07/2013
[Unflag this message]
To:XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
Picture of oladele olukunle

----- Forwarded Message -----
From: icimt
To: solomon467
Sent: Monday, July 15, 2013 3:21 PM
Subject: paper receiving

Dear Author,
Thanks for your support and submission to ICIMT2013. Your paper has been well received. We will send it to the experts to review soon and reply you on August 5, 2013. Please keep waiting and attention to your email box.


--------------
Thanks & regards,

Daisy Y. Zhong

Conference Secretary ︱IACSIT Chengdu Section︱Tel: +86-28-86528758
IACSIT China Office︱E12, No.51, Tengfei Avenue, Chengdu, Sichuan, China 610073

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Post by CRUNCH on Mon Aug 19, 2013 12:25 pm

How to Pay

There are a few options to make payment as follows:

Option 1: Credit Card

We prefer that you pay by your credit card which is 100% secured at our end. You complete the registration form and provide your credit card details in the form and then send it to Nuha Jahan, Conference Administrator via email address ausconpap@gmail.com. If you do not feel secure or are concerned, you can just provide us your contact telephone number and we can take your card details over phone

Which Company will process your credit card payment:

We have selected Business Care Australia Pty Ltd which has branch office in New York, USA and Melbourne, Australia to receive and process all credit card payments.

For USA operation, it has got registration from the State of New York with EIN 22-3978750 and located at 60 Columbus Avenue, West Babylon, NY 11704-5223, USA

This company has a history of securely processing credit cards from 130 countries of the world and your credit card is 100% safe at their hand. On your credit card statement, the name “Business Care Australia Pty Ltd” will be shown and you should not be concerned about it.

Option 2: Paypal

You can also pay through paypal. If you have a paypal account, you can pay to njahanwbi@gmail.com

If you do not have a paypal account but still wish to make a payment through paypal, we can email you an invoice from paypal and you can pay with your credit card. You need to email us the email address you would like us to send the invoice to and the amount. Once you receive the invoice you need to click the pay now button and then follow the prompts. You cannot deduct any money transfer fee from the registration fee and if you do this, your registration will remain incomplete until you pay us the full amount of registration fee.

Option 3: International or Wire Transfer

You can also directly transfer the money from your bank to

Account Name: World Business Institute Limited

Branch Number: 033609

Account No: 382353

Bank: Westpac Banking Corporation

Address: 37 High Street, Berwick VIC 3806 Australia

For Wire Transfer: Swift Code: WPACAU2S

Please Note: You cannot deduct any money transfer fee from the registration fee and if you do this, your registration will remain incomplete until you pay us the full amount of registration fee

Option 4: Payment via Money Gram Or Western Union

You can transfer registration payment via above organization. However, you need to use the following address:

Nuha Jahan

World Business Institute

31 Blake Street

Berwick 3806

Melbourne

Australia

Please Note: You cannot deduct any money transfer fee from the registration fee and if you do this, your registration will remain incomplete until you pay us the full amount of registration fee

Option 5: Payment by Indian Authors by Bank Transfer:

Indian authors must use only State Bank of India for Bank Transfer. We do not allow other banks from India.

Please Note: You cannot deduct any money transfer fee from the registration fee and if you do this, your registration will remain incomplete until you pay us the full amount of registration fee

Option 6: Payment By Iranian Authors and Payment on Arrival:

Only Iranian authors can pay cash on arrival. But you need to send us following documents by 28 October 2013:

1. Completed registration form showing how much you are paying on arrival. You cannot negotiate this amount after arrival on any ground

2. A scanned copy of Australian Visa

3. A scanned copy of your confirmed air-ticket,

4. A letter from the funding body or your university showing the approval of the fund for this conference

If we do not receive the above all documents (We repeat “all documents” not part documents) by 28 October 2013, we cannot and will not include you in the conference program. If you cannot meet this deadline, we suggest you to withdraw your paper and resubmit it for our future conferences.

Please note: You cannot negotiate for any reduced or discounted amount or for day registration at the time of cash payment.

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Male Re: Solomon S the phd lecturer!!lmfao

Post by CRUNCH on Mon Aug 19, 2013 1:23 pm


CRUNCH

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Post by CRUNCH on Mon Aug 19, 2013 1:29 pm


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Post by CRUNCH on Mon Aug 19, 2013 1:32 pm


CRUNCH

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Post by CRUNCH on Mon Aug 19, 2013 1:38 pm






GEEE....TEN TO THREE IN THE MORNING SOLOMON.......AND YOU ARE ONLY ONLINE WHEN YOUR BELOVED IS!!!!!!!!!>>>>>>>>>>>>SEEING AS SHE WAS ASLEEP AT MIDNITE HOW COME YA STILL ON???????????LMFOA....LIAR!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!LMAO


Last edited by CRUNCH on Mon Aug 19, 2013 1:56 pm; edited 1 time in total

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Male Re: Solomon S the phd lecturer!!lmfao

Post by CRUNCH on Mon Aug 19, 2013 1:40 pm











"DEAR" I ONLY COME INTO TAGGED TO SPEAK WITH YOU"....SEEING AS THE VICTIM WAS THERE ONLY AT NIGHT....HMMMMMMMMMMMMMM.................YEP!!HES A HONEST BLOKE ISNT HE.....LMFAO NOT!!!!!!!!!!!!!!


Last edited by CRUNCH on Mon Aug 19, 2013 1:52 pm; edited 1 time in total

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Male Re: Solomon S the phd lecturer!!lmfao

Post by CRUNCH on Mon Aug 19, 2013 1:46 pm



LOTS OF LOGINS..................GEE WONDER WHO HES SCAMMING AS WELL????


Last edited by CRUNCH on Mon Aug 19, 2013 1:50 pm; edited 1 time in total

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Male Re: Solomon S the phd lecturer!!lmfao

Post by CRUNCH on Mon Aug 19, 2013 1:48 pm




AND OF COURSE...HE CONTINUOUSLY TELLS THE VICTIM"I ONLY COME IN TO TAGGED TO SPEAK WITH YOU.........YET FUNNY............SEEMS HES IN THERE CONSTANTLY..........LMFAO.....................EPIC FAIL SOLOMON!!!!!!!!EPIC!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

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Male Re: Solomon S the phd lecturer!!lmfao

Post by CRUNCH on Mon Aug 19, 2013 2:25 pm

BUT OF COURSE HE WILL STILL SAY HE ISNT A SCAMMER!!!!!!!!!!LMFAO....

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Male Re: Solomon S the phd lecturer!!lmfao

Post by CRUNCH on Wed Aug 21, 2013 5:53 am


CRUNCH

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Male Re: Solomon S the phd lecturer!!lmfao

Post by CRUNCH on Wed Aug 21, 2013 5:54 am


CRUNCH

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Male Re: Solomon S the phd lecturer!!lmfao

Post by CRUNCH on Wed Aug 21, 2013 5:55 am


CRUNCH

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Male Re: Solomon S the phd lecturer!!lmfao

Post by Anitha on Sat Jan 11, 2014 3:24 pm

Are you sure this guy is a scammer?

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Male active scammer?

Post by Anitha on Wed Jan 15, 2014 11:32 am

Solomon is not a scammer as stated on this website

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Post by CRUNCH on Mon Oct 13, 2014 5:16 am


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Male Re: Solomon S the phd lecturer!!lmfao

Post by CRUNCH on Mon Oct 13, 2014 5:20 am

Olayinka S http://www.tagged.com/profile.html?uid=7281099313


Last Active: 16 hours ago

Profile Views: 19 times

Profile Skin: Default

Member Since: December 12, 2013



Gender: Male

Location: Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Age: 41

Relationship Status: Single

Interested In: Friends, Dating, Serious Relationship

Orientation: Straight
About Me

Music:

Ragae, Hip hop, gospel
Movies:

American movie
Sports:

Foot ball, table tennis, swimming

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Post by CRUNCH on Mon Oct 13, 2014 5:22 am


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Post by CRUNCH on Mon Oct 13, 2014 5:22 am


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Post by CRUNCH on Mon Oct 13, 2014 5:23 am


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Post by CRUNCH on Mon Oct 13, 2014 5:23 am


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