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    Solomon S the phd lecturer!!lmfao

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    Male Re: Solomon S the phd lecturer!!lmfao

    Post by CRUNCH on Mon Aug 19, 2013 11:07 am

    ".......HIS WORK........    "
    LMAO.....NOW IM SURE YOU WILL ALL FEEL THE SAME WAY I DO, CONSIDERING THE FACT THIS DUDE WAS UNABLE TO DECYPHER THE SIMPLEST OF SENTENCES THAT A TEN YEAR OLD COULD............AND HE CLAIMS TO HAVE WRITTEN THE PAPER WORK BELOW!LMAO........
    Abstract— There are several evidence to show that the
    implementation of electronic commerce in day to day business
    activities serves an essentially important avenues for business
    people to expand their customer base, enhance client
    satisfaction, cut down expenditure, and improve organizational
    performance. This universal occurrence is not as aggressive in
    emerging nations hence, small and medium sized companies are
    under pressure to provide Internet services at their own
    expenditure because of inadequate public support and
    infrastructural inadequacy. The adoption of electronic
    commerce among Nigerians is experiencing a slow pace despite
    the massive population density of the country which interest
    parties’ belief should have been a benefit. This current research
    studied the factors hindering the adoption of e-commerce among
    Nigerians. Four constructs such as government policy and
    support, socio-economic conditions, socio-cultural factors, and
    infrastructure conditions. The researchers used a quantitative
    method to collect data by distributing 150 questionnaires to
    some international students of Nigerian origin studying in
    Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. The filled questionnaires were
    collected and analyzed with Statistical Package for Social
    Sciences (SPSS) version 16. The finding of this research shows
    that poor infrastructural facilities are the main factor hindering
    the adoption of electronic commerce among Nigerians.
    Index Terms—Electronic Commerce; Information
    Communication Technology; Adoption; Nigeria, Universiti
    Teknologi Malaysia.
    I. INTRODUCTION
    It is a highly acknowledged fact that the revolution in the
    information communications technology industry has a direct
    relationship with the way businesses are conducted.
    Researchers have also argued that the introduction of
    electronic commerce into business transactions has further
    been noted as among the most momentary development ever
    witnessed in the world of business [1, 2, 3]. Current research
    shows that over two billion people had access to the Internet
    Manuscript received July 15, 2013.
    O. Solomon was with the Faculty of Management, Universiti Teknologi
    Malaysia. He is now with the Faculty of Management, Business and
    Entrepreneurship, Universiti Tun Husein Onn, Batu Pahat, Johor Malaysia
    (e-mail: solomom467@yahoo.com).
    M. A. Ajagbe is with the Faculty of Management, Universiti Teknologi
    Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor-Malaysia (e-mail: ajagbetun@yahoo.com).
    globally. Miniwatts marketing group [4] in their current
    report mentioned that maintaining the global usage of the
    Internet has increased by over 580% between 2000 and 2011.
    Balogun [5] positioned that electronic commerce is the
    adoption of the Internet to buy, sell or supports and services.
    Grandon and Pearson [6] perceived electronic commerce to
    be businesses conducted through electronic data transmission
    over the Internet and World Wide Web. This mode of
    transacting businesses allows for high level of product
    customization and permits firms to improve client services
    [7]. A essential advantage of e-commerce is access to world
    markets which enables companies to expand their coverage.
    Balogun [5] further added that the Internet enables increase in
    awareness, visibility and opportunity for companies to
    promote its goods and services.
    Several previous studies have investigated the adoption of
    e-commerce in different sectors in developing countries, for
    example Nigeria [1, 2, 8, 3]. However, Onifade [9]
    specifically mentioned that E-commerce acceptance is at the
    developmental phase in Nigeria. He concluded that the
    acceptance of e-commerce is noticeably growing in the
    country particularly among the large number of literate
    people. However, small and medium firms are still grappling
    to provide Internet services at their own expenditure as a
    result of insufficient public support [9, 8]. In the past years,
    access to the Web in developing countries was mainly limited
    to e-mail communication [10]. Even though there are some
    studies on electronic commerce adoption in developing
    countries, some gaps still needs to be filled in some countries
    such as Nigeria in respect to the massive implementation of
    e-commerce in carrying out day to day business transactions.
    Other authors also added that insufficient research on
    e-commerce activity exists in developing countries, thus it is
    inappropriate to relate results from research conducted in
    developed countries applicability to developing countries [11,
    12]. Moreso, that the findings from developed countries are
    not directly transferable to developing countries. The
    identification of factors hindering e-commerce adoption, aids
    government and businesses to overcome factors that later
    would create a positive environment that will encourage
    e-commerce adoption. Research on information and
    communications technology (ICT) and particularly
    e-commerce has focused on developed countries [6, 13].
    Several studies have noted factors that influence individuals
    and firms to adopt e-commerce [6, 14]. These factors are
    Drivers of E-Commerce Adoption among Nigerians
    Oluyinka Solomon1 and Musibau Akintunde Ajagbe2 (Member, IACSIT)
    1 Faculty of Technology Management and Business and 2Faculty of Management
    1University Tun Hussien Onn Malaysia, 86400, Batu pahat, Johor Bahru-Malaysia
    and 2Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
    81310, Skudai, Johor-Malaysia
    1Solomon467@yahoo.com and 2ajagbetun@yahoo.com
    technological characteristics, social characteristics, and
    environmental characteristics, time, relative advantage of
    e-commerce, IT knowledge, and e-commerce compatibility.
    However, referring to previous studies in empirical literature,
    this study intends to identify factors hindering the adoption of
    e-commerce among Nigerians. This particular research shall
    focus on four factors namely; infrastructure barriers,
    socio-cultural barriers, socio-economic barriers and
    government policy and support.
    11 DIFFUSION OF INNOVATIONS
    Diffusion is the process by which an innovation is
    communicated through certain channels over time among
    members of a social system [15, 14]. Diffusion of Innovation
    (DOI) adoption is a process of lowering business
    unpredictability. To limit unpredictable situations about a
    technology, an individual will gather and synthesize
    information about the technology. The result of this process
    is beliefs about using the technology, beliefs then cause
    individuals to accept or reject the technology. Roger’s [16]
    definition of diffusion contains four essential components in
    the diffusion of innovation process. These elements include
    the innovation, communication channels, time and the social
    systems. These components are a bit simplistic and follow a
    basic communication process. However previous research
    found that it is useful in separating the message from channels
    and the potential adopters. Kurnia [14] represents a
    compilation of the majority of the previous diffusion theory
    research which could be useful to investigate any kind of
    innovation. The innovation diffusion theory has been widely
    used in IT acceptance and has been tested on information
    technologies such as operating system and educational
    system [13, 17]. Several researchers used DOI characteristics
    to study technology infrastructure readiness on technology
    acceptance in Taiwan; a face to face survey of 99 firms shows
    that readiness of technology infrastructure influence
    technology acceptance [8, 17]. It was further explained that
    online shoppers use DOI via the e-commerce to influence the
    sales turnover in U.S stores. Similarly, [18] also applied the
    characteristics of DOI to argue that business is facing an
    exponential growth in sales and purchases electronically,
    whether locally, regionally or internationally due to spread of
    internet service at the state level. Some of the characteristics
    of DOI are suitable for the current study. DOI has been used
    in many previous studies at the level of individuals and firms.
    Moreover, its factors help to understand the trend of the
    decision makers towards the implementation of new
    mechanisms in the workplace, particularly the information
    technology mechanisms such as e-commerce [13, 19].
    A Understanding Innovations Diffusion in Developing
    Countries
    It is important to understand what constitutes innovation in
    the developing countries. An innovation may be well known
    in one place, but virtually unknown in another due to
    insufficient awareness [9]. Innovations processes in
    developing countries were poorly constructed and very
    fragmented. In Nigeria for instance, a large number of
    micro-enterprises operate in the informal sector of the
    country, and a more or less important number of
    foreign-based firms were disconnected from the rest of the
    economy [20, 17]. There are limited researches on innovation
    diffusions in developing countries and universal systems
    poorly connected to local realities, particularly to labor
    market needs and opportunities. The major hurdles of
    technology innovation developing process are the
    unavailability of technological support services and
    infrastructure. This study consider a clearer understanding of
    what innovation means in developing countries as an
    important factor that precedes the adoption of e-commerce.
    B History of e-commerce and telecommunication in
    Nigeria
    The middle of 1990s witnessed the emergence of
    electronic commerce industry in Nigeria when there was
    an increase in awareness of the Internet and
    telecommunications industry [21]. The development of
    this sector was slow until the introduction of Internet
    banking at the beginning of the 21st Century. This is
    because an e-commerce service is dependent on people’s
    ability to make use of this new innovation. Services like
    the electronic cash transfer have been found to have a
    huge impact on the development of e-commerce in
    Nigeria [19]. The growth and acceptance of credit/debit
    cards and Automated Teller Machines (ATMs) also gave
    a testimonial to the country’s pledging on e-commerce
    adoption. Introduction of e-payment like MasterCard,
    InterSwitch, VisaCard and e-transact made Internet
    transaction easy in terms of cash payment, cash
    withdrawal or cash transfer anywhere in the country, and
    also purchases of goods and services could be made
    through this medium. This is a welcome development,
    especially in the light of the recent increasing growth and
    development of Western shopping malls in the Nigeria.
    E-commerce offers great benefits to any economy and
    continues to gain acceptance in Nigeria, the initial divide
    between Nigerian consumers and the rest of the global
    market were bridged as a result of this [22]. Authors
    posit that African countries are usually considered as
    parts of developing countries which are generally behind
    in different development indexes [23]. Before 1998 there
    were just a few dial-up e-mail providers in Nigeria and a
    couple of Internet service providers (ISPs) that operated
    on slow links. The present ISPs provide users with online
    advertising opportunities, Internet banking security and
    very-small-aperture terminal (VSAT) services. More
    than 400 ISPs have been licensed as well as a number of
    data carriers [24]. Research on Nigeria found that in
    other to improve on e-commerce adoption in Nigeria, the
    Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) engaged in the
    consolidation of the banking industry in order to
    strengthen, integrate and harmonize the activities of the
    sector and make them more capable to engage in global
    operations. Introduction of this policy by CBN led to the
    drastic reduction in fraud and improved the confidence
    of the consumer on Internet transactions. The vast
    improvement in telecommunications services in the
    country is further stressed by a surge in private telecom
    operators (PTOs) offering “fixed wireless services”,
    which offer data and voice transfer.
    Information Technology is the cornerstone for national
    survival and development in a global ambience that
    changes rapidly, and challenges nations to design brave
    and courageous initiatives to address a host of essential
    socio-economic exigencies such as reliable
    infrastructure, skilled human resources, open
    government and other important factors of capacity
    building [25, 26, 3]. In addition, research found that a
    nation’s IT policy add value to human capital
    development and that reliable infrastructure is the key
    instrument and means of assessment, planning, change
    management and development to achieve sustainable
    growth [27, 5]. It is for this reason that every country has
    a national progressive IT policy and implementation
    strategy to address emerging global reality aside and
    become a victim of the digital divide. A developing
    nation like Nigeria that aspires to participate effectively
    and become a key player in the emerging IT era needs to
    have in place, a highly efficient IT strategy driven by a
    vibrant national IT policy [27, 1]. As a result of the
    above, the Nigerian Information Technology Policy was
    put in place in the year 2005 with the aim to provide IT
    resources, promote resourceful national development,
    guarantees that the country benefits maximally, and
    contributes meaningfully by providing the global
    solutions to the challenges of the IT era. In conclusion,
    Nigerian Information Technology Development Agency
    (NITDA) was established to implement the IT Policy,
    regulate, monitor, evaluate and verify progress basis
    under the supervision and coordination of the Federal
    Ministry of Science and Technology.
    C Barriers to e-commerce adoption in developing
    countries
    Implementing successful e-commerce service is not easy
    as most people might think. Empirical literatures found
    that e-commerce is an influence on developing countries
    [28]. Despite the fact that many developing countries
    have abundant cheap human capital; there are still other
    areas of concern. The following section discusses
    common barriers that hinder e-commerce adoption in
    developing countries based on [29] framework.
    Infrastructural barriers: Studies have reported that
    public infrastructures such as roads, utilities, electricity
    supply, and water sewage among others are the obstacles
    hindering e-commerce adoption in developing countries.
    Infrastructural barriers such as telecommunication were
    identified as one of the main barriers hindering the
    effective adoption of e-commerce in emerging nations
    [8]. Authors believe it is a result of the challenge of
    acquiring suitable technologies to business
    requirements, lack of education and expertise about the
    system requirements. These barriers could prevent firms’
    especially individual users to adopt e-commerce
    applications [29].The first infrastructural factor
    hindering e-commerce adoption is telecommunication,
    connecting to the Internet in most developing countries
    is not steadfast because of poor telephone connections
    and irregular electric power supply. Most developing
    countries are not prepared for e-commerce, due to lack
    of network infrastructure, especially among individual
    users and business people.
    Socio-cultural barriers: Some of the characteristics of
    the local cultures may pose significant challenges to the
    adoption of electronic commerce in some countries [29].
    They indicate that socio-cultural issues are part of the
    problems of the implementation of electronic commerce
    in developing countries as e-commerce goes contrary to
    experience and culture. Ratnasingham [30] investigated
    and found trust to be an essential requirement for secured
    electronic trading. Efendioglu et al. [25] argued that
    adoption of e-commerce may be hindered by individual
    consumers who think that counterfeit products are sold
    on-line. Highlighting further that lack of transactional
    trust between parties is another important factor in the
    discussion of electronic transactions. Lawrence [26]
    added that most users in developing countries are not
    willing to provide sensitive financial information over
    the internet.
    Socio-economic barriers: Previous research has shown
    that some of the socio-economic features of certain
    nations may pose important challenges to the
    implementation of electronic style of trading in those
    countries [31]. They indicate that economic situations
    are among essential characteristics hindering adoption of
    e-commerce in developing countries. Kshetri [10] stated
    that, economic conditions in developing countries are
    widely identified as major hindrances to e-commerce
    adoption. Lawrence [26] argued that, gross domestic
    product and per capita income are common indicators
    for the economic conditions of a country. This was
    believed to be due to the high rate of access charge
    relative to income and earning level of an average
    citizen, and this invariably affects the use of the internet.
    Government Policy and Support: Dewan and Kraemer
    [11] found that, political and government policies may
    pose some significant challenges to e-commerce
    adoption in developing countries. They opine that, active
    government intention in marketplace and monetary
    policy is the best method of ensuring country’s growth
    and political stability. Government initiatives are
    important in the adoption of e-commerce, information
    technology and other communications in general.
    Government initiatives can be in terms of promotion of
    ICT usage, education and the establishment of adequate
    regulatory framework for e-commerce [6]. In addition,
    political conditions had been an issue hindering
    e-commerce adoption in developing countries and most
    researches focus on global problems of modern society,
    socio-political development, social dynamics, structure
    and stratification of the society [2]. Most of the political
    conditions affecting the whole society are regulated
    through government policy.
    111 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
    Several studies have noted factors that influence
    individuals and firms to adopt electronic commerce [14, 10,
    23, 19]. Examples of these factors are technological
    characteristics, social characteristics, and environmental
    characteristics, time, relative advantage of e-commerce, IT
    knowledge, and e-commerce compatibility. Based on the
    previous studies, this study intends to identify factors
    hindering the adoption of e-commerce among Nigerians.
    Specifically, four factors namely infrastructure barriers,
    socio-cultural barriers, socio-economic barriers and
    government policy and support were investigated in this study.
    The research question adopted for this study seek to find out
    whether the aforementioned four constructs do actually hinder
    the adoption of e-commerce among Nigerians and to
    understand which of the constructs contribute the most and
    the least to e-commerce adoption among Nigerians.
    1V METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY
    The entire population for this study is 191 Nigerian
    postgraduate students studying at Universiti Teknologi
    Malaysia, Skudai campus. This population of respondents is
    perceived to be appropriate for two reasons, e-commerce
    studies show high internet literacy among the young and
    educated population, and being overseas, they are believed to
    be very much conversant with online transactions,
    particularly, online banking. In order to choose a reliable
    sample for the study, the researchers relied on past authors
    such as [32] who proposed 20 subjects per variable as been
    appropriate for quantitative sample selection, hence, this
    study assumes that 140 respondents is adequate for reliable
    findings. The study adopted a 5 point likert scale
    questionnaire as a design for this study (1=strongly disagree
    to 5= strongly agree) to measure all the factors. A pilot test
    was conducted prior to the final questionnaire distribution to
    test the clarity of the questions, examine the reliability and the
    validity of the instrument. The internal consistency of the
    responses from the 30 students was investigated using SPSS
    16.0 for windows. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for all
    constructs is greater than 0.70, indicating that the instrument
    is reliable. Table 1 shows the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient
    result for this study.
    TABLE I: CRONBACH’S ALPHA COEFFICIENT RESULTS
    Measurement No of
    Items
    Cronbach’s
    Alpha
    1. Government policy and
    support
    6 0.759
    2. Socio- economic condition 6 0.762
    3. Socio- cultural condition 5 0.734
    4. Infrastructural technology 4 0.714
    5. E-commerce adoption 5 0.851
    V DATA ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS
    This study conducted a factor analysis and multiple regression
    analysis in order to identify the independent variables that
    best explain e-commerce adoption among Nigerians. For the
    missing data, a total of 150 questionnaires were distributed
    for this study. One hundred and forty-three questionnaires of
    150 were returned, indicating 95.3% response rate. Three
    responses were excluded for missing value because the
    respondents did not answer 70% of the questions. Therefore,
    140 responses were used for the statistical analysis. This study
    chose histogram and normal probability plot to assess the
    normality of the data over other box plot and stem and leaf
    plot statistical techniques as indicated in figure 1 and 2 below.
    Figure 1 Histogram for the study
    Figure 2 Normal P Plot for the study
    Note: a, predictors: (Constant) MySE, MySC, MyTI,
    MyGP
    b. Dependent variable: MyINTO, Note: Scale: 1=
    strongly disagree, 5 = strongly agree
    Result from the above figures shows that if the value for
    skewness falls within certain range, the skewness is
    considered not seriously violated [31], the standard error of
    skewness is 0.205 and the skewness statistic is -0.415.
    Therefore, 2 x 0.205 = 0.410, this result indicates normal
    because 0.415 falls within the range of 0.410. Similar
    procedure is used to determine the appropriateness of the
    Kurtosis, (standard error of kurtosis is 0.407 and the kurtosis
    statistic is -0.824, thus 2 x 0.407 = 0.814).
    Furthermore, the outliers are examined through the scatter
    plot graph which reported identifiable patterns of responses
    and in turn, indicated a relatively normal distribution. Figure
    3 shows the scatter plot of regression standardized residual for
    the dependent variable shows that there is no outstanding
    values (outliers) shown in the plot.
    Figure 3 Scatter Plot of Regression
    a, predictors: (Constant) MySE, MySC, MyTI, MyGP
    b. Dependent variable: MyINTO
    Factor analysis was used to determine if the number of factors
    and the loadings of measured (indicator) variables on them
    conform to what is expected on the basis of pre-developed
    theory as mentioned earlier. Factor loading should be 0.7 or
    higher to confirm that independent variables identified a
    priori are represented by a particular factor. Correlation
    matrix, factor extraction and rotation are used as an
    exploratory technique to summarize the structure of a set of
    variables, to test the reliability of the construct, and serve as
    additional means of determining the appropriateness of the
    factor analytic model. KMO and Bartlett’s test of sphericity
    was run to determine if items are tapping into the same
    construct and to test the reliability of the constructs.
    Components matrix, KMO and Bartlett’s test sphericity are
    significant which explains the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure
    of sampling adequacy greater than 0.6 and acceptable for
    further analysis. An examination of factor loading identified
    items that did not load as expected, and was removed from
    further analysis.
    Multiple regressions were performed after the measures of
    sampling adequacy which reveals that all our measures of
    sampling adequacy are well above acceptable. The
    independent variables are the mean scores of lack of
    government policies (MyGP), poor socio-economic
    conditions (MySE), unsupportive socio-cultural factors
    (MySC) and poor technology infrastructural factors (MyTI),
    and the dependent variable is e-commerce adoption
    (MyINTO). The regression analysis as reported in Table 2c,
    explained that there is a significant relationship between
    e-commerce adoption and lack of government policies and
    support, poor socio-economic conditions, poor socio-cultural
    factors and poor technology infrastructural factors. These
    variables explained 50.1% of the variability in e-commerce
    adoption F (4,135) = 33.932, p ≤ 0.05. The result suggests that
    3 out of 4 factors that were used in this study to an extent
    hinder e-commerce adoption among Nigerians. As indicated
    in Table 2a, b and c below, regression coefficient table
    reported poor technology infrastructural factors (β = 0.576, p
    ≤ 0.001) contributed most among the four factors that hinders
    e-commerce adoption among Nigerians, followed by
    socio-economic conditions (β = 0.480, p ≤0.001) and
    government policies and support (β = 0.337, p≤0.002).
    Table 2a Model Summary for Multiple Regressions
    a. Predictors: (Constant), MySE, MySC, MyTI, MyGP
    b. Dependent Variable: MyINTO
    Table 2b ANOVA
    Table 2c Regression coefficient
    VI DISCUSSIONS AND CONCLUSIONS
    This section presents the summary of findings,
    discussions, contribution and conclusions of the study. The
    purpose of this study was to examine factors hindering
    e-commerce adoption among Nigerians. Four factors
    namely, government policies and support, socio-economic
    factors, socio-cultural factors and technology infrastructures
    were used to examine the adoption. Furthermore, the
    developed study hypothesis used to examine the intended
    study questions are: Lack of government support and policy
    hinders e-commerce adoption among Nigerians, Poor
    socio-economic condition hinders e-commerce adoption
    among Nigerians, Poor socio-cultural factors hinder
    e-commerce adoption and Poor technology infrastructure
    factors hinders e-commerce adoption among Nigerians. As
    discussed in the previous sections of this study, multiple
    regression analysis was conducted to test the hypotheses
    stated above. The level of significance of 0.05 was used to
    determine the level of significance. The overall findings of
    Model R
    R
    Square
    Adjusted R
    Square
    Std. Error of
    the Estimate
    1
    .708
    a
    .501 .487 .70331
    Model
    Sum of
    Squares
    Df
    Mean
    Square
    F Sig.
    Regression
    67.137 4 16.784
    33.93
    2
    .000a
    Residual 66.777 135 .495
    Total 133.914 139
    Model
    Unstandardized
    Coefficients
    Standardized
    Coefficients T Sig.
    B Std. Error Beta
    (Consta
    nt)
    1.101 .257 4.278 .000
    MyGP .233 .075 .337 3.110 .002
    MySC .039 .052 .054 .754 .452
    MyTI .477 .061 .576 7.759 .000
    MySE .322 .077 .480 4.182 .000
    Note: a predictors: (Constant),
    MySE, MySC, MyGP, MyTI,
    b. Dependent variable: MyINTO
    the study indicate that technology infrastructure,
    socio-economic condition and government policies and
    support hinder e-commerce adoption among Nigerians.
    This study concludes that as the e-commerce paradigm in
    business transactions shifts from developed countries such as
    Britain, U.S, Japan and Canada to developing nations, the
    findings of this study contributes to the limited study on
    e-commerce in developing countries and relevant to future
    research on e-commerce and associated areas. Technology
    infrastructure indicated the most significant factor hindering
    e-commerce adoption among Nigerians while socio-cultural
    factor represented the least. Also, priority considerations to
    improve e-commerce adoption focused on technology
    infrastructure and solutions to poor energy supply. The study
    provides a yardstick for provision for appropriate strategies,
    suitable policies and infrastructures to assist Nigerian
    businesses and consumers in their transactions via
    e-commerce. The respondents interviewed for this research
    cut across the six geopolitical zones of Nigeria strengthening
    generalization of the findings, although with high
    representation of males among the study participants. Future
    research should look towards population sample drawn from
    commerce oriented individuals and e-commerce adoption in
    other developing countries. The results of identified and
    investigated factors in e-commerce adoption namely: lack of
    government policies and support, socio-economic factors,
    socio-cultural factors and technology, supported all the
    hypotheses except socio-culture factors. Depicting the
    challenges in terms of government policies and supports,
    socio-economic situations and technology infrastructure in
    place mostly centered cost effect. Provision of technology
    infrastructures and IT education at primary levels of
    education will encourage e-commerce adoption irrespective
    of the current limitations with limited existing infrastructures,
    poor economic situation and poor socio-cultural conditions.
    .
    2Corresponding Author: ajagbetun@yahoo.com
    VII REFERENCES
    [1] E. Adejuwon and B. Tijani, “Poverty Reduction and the Attainment of
    the Millennium Development Goals in Nigeria” (Problems and
    Prospects): International Journal of Research and Reviews in
    Computer Science, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 249-296, 2012.
    [2] O. Awodele and E. Onuiri, “A Secure E-commerce System for a
    Campus Mall: A View on the Business to Consumer Relationship”
    International Journal of Research and Reviews in Computer Science,
    vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 178- 192, 2012.
    [3] G. K. Akintola and O. R. Akinyede, “Appraising Nigeria Readiness
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    Journal of Research and Reviews in Soft and Intelligent
    Computing, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 2011.
    [4] Miniwatts Marketing Group, “World Internet Users Statistics Usage
    and World Population Statistic” Reported June 30, 2012.
    [5] A. Balogun, “An Evaluation of the Risks involved in Onshore IT
    Outsourcing: A Case Study of Citiserve Limited Nigeria” Thesis PP.
    46- 53, 2010.
    [6] E. Grandon and J. M. Pearson, “E-commerce Adoption: Perceptions of
    Managers/Owners of Small and Medium Sized Firms in Chile.
    Communications of the Association for Information Systems, vol. 13,
    no. 2, pp. 81-102, 2004.
    [7] S. Choi and A. Winston, “Benefits and Requirements for in Electronic
    Market Place” Technology in Society, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 33–44, 2000.
    [8] E. E. Aniekan, “Poverty Alleviation in Nigeria through Capitalism
    Economic Framework: Problems and Challenges” Journal of
    Sustainable Development in Africa, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 152-175, 2011.
    [9] A. Onifade, “History of Counter in Nigeria” International Journal of
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    [10] N. Kshetri, “Barriers to E-commerce and Competitive Business
    Models in Developing Countries” Electronic Commerce Research and
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    [11] S. Dewan and L. K. Kraemer, “Information Technology and
    Productivity: Preliminary Evidence from Country-Level Data”
    Management Science, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 548-562, 2000.
    [12] A. Molla and R. Duncombe, “E-Commerce Development in
    Developing Countries: Profiling Change Agents for SMEs”
    International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation, vol. 7, no. 3,
    pp. 185-196, 2006.
    [13] A. W. V. Mbarika, “A Framework for Assessing E-commerce in Sub
    Saharan Africa” Journal of Association for Information Systems, vol.
    6, no. 5, pp. 130-170, 2003.
    [14] S. Kurnia, “E-commerce Adoption in Developing Countries: An
    Indonesian Study” San Diego International Systems Conference
    People. Communications of the IBIMA, 5, May, 2006.
    [15] M. E. Rogers, “Diffusion of innovations (4th ed.). The Free Press New
    York, 1995.
    [16] M. E. Rogers, “Diffusion of Innovations (1st ed)” The Free Press New
    York, 1962.
    [17] E. Margaret and Q. Zheng, “China and Nigeria, A Powerful South-
    South Alliance, West Africa Challenges” The Sahel and West Africa
    Club Secretariat, Reported 2011.
    [18] J. Brancheau., C. James and J. Wetherbe, “The Adoption of
    Spreadsheet Software: Testing Innovation Diffusion Theory in
    the Context of End User Computing” Information Systems Research,
    vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 115-143, 1990.
    [19] C. Alexander, “Right Step towards Improving Power Suplly in
    Nigeria” Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa, vol. 13, no. 2,
    pp. 119-138., 2012.
    [20] O. Oyelaran, (2006). “Learning To Compete in African Industry
    Institutions and Technology”, Hampshire GU 113HR, England,
    Ashgate Publishing Limited. Pp.120-161, 2006.
    [21] M. Martin, “Citation: Strategic Challenges for E-Commerce
    Promotion in Central Africa” Social Science Research Network, vol.
    30, 2003.
    [22] K. C. Ayo and A. A. Oni, “An Empirical Investigation of the Level of
    Users’Acceptance of E-Banking in Nigeria” Journal of Internet
    Banking and Commerce, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 1-13, 2010.
    [23] A. S. Al-Somali, ”Electronic Commerce Adoption: A Case Study of
    Business Practice to Business in Saudi Arabia, Thesis, pp. 161-170,
    2011.
    [24] S. L. Sanusi, ”The Nigerian Banking Industry: What went wrong and
    the way forward. Being a Convocation Lecture delivered at the
    Convocation Square, Bayero University, Kano, on Friday 26
    February, 2010 to mark the Annual Convocation Ceremony of the
    University).
    [25] Efendioglu, A. M & Yip, V. F. (2004). "Chinese Culture and
    E-commerce: An Exploratory Study: Interacting with Computers,
    16(1), 45- 62.
    [26] E. J. Lawrence, “The Growth of E-Commerce in Developing
    Countries: An Exploratory Study of Opportunities and Challenges for
    SMEs” International Journal of ICT Research, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 15-28,
    2011.
    [27] X. Luo and J. Zhang, “Examining Multi-Dimensional Trust and Multi
    Faceted Risk in Initial Acceptance of Emerging Technologies: An
    Empirical Study of Mobile Banking Services”. Decision Support
    Systems, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 224-234, 2010.
    [28] S. Al-Ghaith, and A. Sandhu, “Factors Influencing the Adoption and
    Usage of Online Services in Saudi Arabia” The Electronic Journal of
    Information Systems in Developing Countries, vol. 40, no. 3, pp.
    168-195, 2010.
    [29] E. J. Lawrence, and T. A. Usman, “Barriers to E-commerce in
    Developing Countries” Information, Society and Justice, vol. 3, no. 1,
    pp. 23-35, 2010.
    [30] P. Ratnasingham, (1998) "The Importance of Trust in Electronic
    Commerce" Internet Research, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 313 – 321, 1998.
    [31] G. D. Kleinbaum., L. L. Kupper and E. K.. Muller, “Applied
    Regression Analysis and Multivariable Method” Lorong Chaun, vol.
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    Male Re: Solomon S the phd lecturer!!lmfao

    Post by CRUNCH on Mon Aug 19, 2013 11:16 am

    AN EXAMPLE OF A SCAMMERS SCAM!.....SENT BY GUESS WHO?????????
    oladele olukunle
    3/06/2013
    [Keep this message at the top of your inbox]
    To: XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
    Picture of oladele olukunle

    10:30MAINSTAY SUITES HOTELS EMPLOYMENT CANADA

    Hi, is a pleasure to let you know about the on-going 2013/2014 Job recruitment’s in Canadian Mainstay Suites Hotels. The hotel management is interested in able foreign men/women and group from various countries that will like to work with the Mainstay Suites Hotels Toronto Canada. Immigration support will be rendered by the hotel to enable the applicant’s obtain a Canadian visa in their very country while the accommodation & feeding will be provided by the management through out the working period.
    For more details email (mainstaysuiteshotelscanada@yahoo.ca)
    Regards
    Christy
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    Post by CRUNCH on Mon Aug 19, 2013 11:18 am

    Solomon‏

    To see messages related to this one, group messages by conversation.
    oladele olukunle
    25/05/2013
    [Keep this message at the top of your inbox]
    To: XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
    Picture of oladele olukunle

    Am happy to have your mail and we can chat here all the time
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    Post by CRUNCH on Mon Aug 19, 2013 11:19 am

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    Post by CRUNCH on Mon Aug 19, 2013 11:21 am

    RE: Trick‏

    To see messages related to this one, group messages by conversation.
    3/06/2013
    [Keep this message at the top of your inbox]
    To: oladele olukunle


    IF I RECEIVED A LETTER LIKE THIS I WOULDNT BOTHER ANSWERING IT!......I HAVE NO INTENTION TO TRAVEL FOR A START, AND I WOULD WONDER FOR A START WHY IT WOULD BE SENT TO ME ?...........FROM SOMEONE I DONT KNOW?
    AND PEOPLE BELIEVE THIS?.............AND THEN THEY GO THERE?.........ARE THEY NUTS?.LOL....WELL MAYBE SOME PEOPLE WOULD BELIEVE IT...........I DONT THINK I WOULD THOUGH.


    Date: Sun, 2 Jun 2013 20:38:01 -0700
    From: solomon467@yahoo.com
    Subject: Trick
    To:XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX

    10:30MAINSTAY SUITES HOTELS EMPLOYMENT CANADA

    Hi, is a pleasure to let you know about the on-going 2013/2014 Job recruitment’s in Canadian Mainstay Suites Hotels. The hotel management is interested in able foreign men/women and group from various countries that will like to work with the Mainstay Suites Hotels Toronto Canada. Immigration support will be rendered by the hotel to enable the applicant’s obtain a Canadian visa in their very country while the accommodation & feeding will be provided by the management through out the working period.
    For more details email (mainstaysuiteshotelscanada@yahoo.ca)
    Regards
    Christy


    Last edited by CRUNCH on Mon Aug 19, 2013 2:16 pm; edited 1 time in total
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    Post by CRUNCH on Mon Aug 19, 2013 11:24 am

    tricks‏

    oladele olukunle
    3/06/2013
    [Keep this message at the top of your inbox]
    To:XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
    Picture of oladele olukunle

    MAINSTAY SUITES HOTELS EMPLOYMENT CANADA

    Hi, is a pleasure to let you know about the on-going 2013/2014 Job recruitment’s in Canadian Mainstay Suites Hotels. The hotel management is interested in able foreign men/women and group from various countries that will like to work with the Mainstay Suites Hotels Toronto Canada. Immigration support will be rendered by the hotel to enable the applicant’s obtain a Canadian visa in their very country while the accommodation & feeding will be provided by the management through out the working period.
    For more details email (mainstaysuiteshotelscanada@yahoo.ca)
    Regards
    Christy




    Dear XXXXXXXX the above is one of the scammer Tricks
    Solomon
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    Male Re: Solomon S the phd lecturer!!lmfao

    Post by CRUNCH on Mon Aug 19, 2013 11:25 am




    AFTER QUESTIONED ABOUT THIS "CONFERENCE".......ITS DISCOVERED THIS ISNT SOLOMON......BUT "HIS FRIEND"..LMFAO...........


    Last edited by CRUNCH on Mon Aug 19, 2013 2:05 pm; edited 1 time in total
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    Post by CRUNCH on Mon Aug 19, 2013 11:53 am







    THIS IS THE ADDRESS OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMPANY THAT IS IS ALSO CONNECTED TO THE INFORMATION FOR PAYMENT TO THE CONFERENCE.......NOT A BUSINESS AS STIPULATED, BUT A HOME.???????????AND OF COURSE ITS FOR SALE AS WELL??.HMMMMMMMM








    AND THIS IS WHAT YA GET AT THAT ADDRESS ??............INTERESTING ISNT IT...........ITS THE HOUSE ABOVE THATS FOR SALE!


    Last edited by CRUNCH on Mon Aug 19, 2013 2:01 pm; edited 2 times in total
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    Post by CRUNCH on Mon Aug 19, 2013 11:57 am




    31 BLAKE STREET BERWICK, MELB AUSTRALIA...............INTERESTING EH?>>>>>>>>YES ITS ANOTHER INTERNATIONAL COMPANY ADDRESS AS WELL!>>>>>>>>STRANGE ISNT IT THAT THESE TWO HOMES ARE BOTH INTERNATIONAL BUSINESSES DONT YOU THINK?
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    Post by CRUNCH on Mon Aug 19, 2013 12:06 pm

    Conference registration fee varies from US$ 500 to 850 depending on the choice of events or package by the delegates. However, there is special Registration Package which includes basic registration fee, conference dinner and publication of papers in either online journal or in both print & online journal. In addition, all fees include hot Buffet lunch and arrival, morning and afternoon break foods and tea/coffee for two days. Please contact us in advance if the conference fee will be late so that we can plan for your attendance. There is special discount which varies from 5% to 10% who takes early registration (see the policy below).

    Schedule of Fees

    Code Description Fee ($AUD)

    A Basic Registration fee (includes arrival tea, morning and afternoon tea and buffet lunch) 500

    B Student registration fee (includes arrival tea, morning and afternoon tea and buffet lunch) 475

    B1 Doctoral Symposium (half day seminar) 100

    C Presentation of 2nd Paper by same author 80

    D Conference Dinner (optional) 100

    E 1 Lunch or 1 Dinner ticket for accompanying person (DOES NOT include co-authors) 100

    F Co-Author Registration Fee (if at least one author takes basic registration) 400

    G Online Publication in accepted journals 200

    H Publication in accepted print journals (plus online) 300

    I Discounted package-1 which includes A, D & G 750

    J Discounted package-2 which includes A, D & H 850

    K Discounted package-3 which includes B, D & G 725

    L Discounted package-4 which includes B, D & GH 825

    Special Discount:

    a. 10 % for registration by 26 August 2013

    b. 5% for registration in between 27 August 2013 – 13 September 2013




    Cancellation Policy

    There is a AUD $150 fee on cancellations received prior to 28 October 2013. There will be no refunds on cancellations received after 28 October 2013. The authors will be provided with receipt of payment and a letter/certificate of participation upon registering at the conference venue.


    AHEM.!!!!!!!!!!..........HE SENDS THE VICTIM,,,,,,THE PRICE LIST!!COS  YOU KNOW THE POOR GUYS REAL SHORT OF CASH..AND TO FURTHER HIS EDUCATION IN HIS PHD....HE NEEDS ASSISTANCE  WHOSE GUNNA HELP THE IMBECILE THEN HUH?>>>>>>>>>>TSK TSK TSK lol! lol! lol! lol! lol! lol! lol! lol! lol! lol! lol! lol! lol! lol! lol! lol! lol! lol! lol! lol! lol! lol! 
    WELL WE KNOW ONE THING DONT WE GIRLS?>>>>>>>ITS NOT US!!!!!!!!!!!!!LMFAO



    Last edited by CRUNCH on Mon Aug 19, 2013 2:11 pm; edited 2 times in total
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    Male Re: Solomon S the phd lecturer!!lmfao

    Post by CRUNCH on Mon Aug 19, 2013 12:18 pm

    oladele olukunle
    View contact
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       Fw: paper receiving‏

    oladele olukunle
    15/07/2013
    [Unflag this message]
    To:XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
    Picture of oladele olukunle

    ----- Forwarded Message -----
    From: icimt
    To: solomon467
    Sent: Monday, July 15, 2013 3:21 PM
    Subject: paper receiving

    Dear Author,
    Thanks for your support and submission to ICIMT2013. Your paper has been well received. We will send it to the experts to review soon and reply you on August 5, 2013. Please keep waiting and attention to your email box.


    --------------
    Thanks & regards,

    Daisy Y. Zhong

    Conference Secretary ︱IACSIT Chengdu Section︱Tel: +86-28-86528758
    IACSIT China Office︱E12, No.51, Tengfei Avenue, Chengdu, Sichuan, China 610073
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    Post by CRUNCH on Mon Aug 19, 2013 12:25 pm

    How to Pay

    There are a few options to make payment as follows:

    Option 1: Credit Card

    We prefer that you pay by your credit card which is 100% secured at our end. You complete the registration form and provide your credit card details in the form and then send it to Nuha Jahan, Conference Administrator via email address ausconpap@gmail.com. If you do not feel secure or are concerned, you can just provide us your contact telephone number and we can take your card details over phone

    Which Company will process your credit card payment:

    We have selected Business Care Australia Pty Ltd which has branch office in New York, USA and Melbourne, Australia to receive and process all credit card payments.

    For USA operation, it has got registration from the State of New York with EIN 22-3978750 and located at 60 Columbus Avenue, West Babylon, NY 11704-5223, USA

    This company has a history of securely processing credit cards from 130 countries of the world and your credit card is 100% safe at their hand. On your credit card statement, the name “Business Care Australia Pty Ltd” will be shown and you should not be concerned about it.

    Option 2: Paypal

    You can also pay through paypal. If you have a paypal account, you can pay to njahanwbi@gmail.com

    If you do not have a paypal account but still wish to make a payment through paypal, we can email you an invoice from paypal and you can pay with your credit card. You need to email us the email address you would like us to send the invoice to and the amount. Once you receive the invoice you need to click the pay now button and then follow the prompts. You cannot deduct any money transfer fee from the registration fee and if you do this, your registration will remain incomplete until you pay us the full amount of registration fee.

    Option 3: International or Wire Transfer

    You can also directly transfer the money from your bank to

    Account Name: World Business Institute Limited

    Branch Number: 033609

    Account No: 382353

    Bank: Westpac Banking Corporation

    Address: 37 High Street, Berwick VIC 3806 Australia

    For Wire Transfer: Swift Code: WPACAU2S

    Please Note: You cannot deduct any money transfer fee from the registration fee and if you do this, your registration will remain incomplete until you pay us the full amount of registration fee

    Option 4: Payment via Money Gram Or Western Union

    You can transfer registration payment via above organization. However, you need to use the following address:

    Nuha Jahan

    World Business Institute

    31 Blake Street

    Berwick 3806

    Melbourne

    Australia

    Please Note: You cannot deduct any money transfer fee from the registration fee and if you do this, your registration will remain incomplete until you pay us the full amount of registration fee

    Option 5: Payment by Indian Authors by Bank Transfer:

    Indian authors must use only State Bank of India for Bank Transfer. We do not allow other banks from India.

    Please Note: You cannot deduct any money transfer fee from the registration fee and if you do this, your registration will remain incomplete until you pay us the full amount of registration fee

    Option 6: Payment By Iranian Authors and Payment on Arrival:

    Only Iranian authors can pay cash on arrival. But you need to send us following documents by 28 October 2013:

    1. Completed registration form showing how much you are paying on arrival. You cannot negotiate this amount after arrival on any ground

    2. A scanned copy of Australian Visa

    3. A scanned copy of your confirmed air-ticket,

    4. A letter from the funding body or your university showing the approval of the fund for this conference

    If we do not receive the above all documents (We repeat “all documents” not part documents) by 28 October 2013, we cannot and will not include you in the conference program. If you cannot meet this deadline, we suggest you to withdraw your paper and resubmit it for our future conferences.

    Please note: You cannot negotiate for any reduced or discounted amount or for day registration at the time of cash payment.
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    Post by CRUNCH on Mon Aug 19, 2013 1:23 pm

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    Post by CRUNCH on Mon Aug 19, 2013 1:29 pm

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    Post by CRUNCH on Mon Aug 19, 2013 1:32 pm

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    Post by CRUNCH on Mon Aug 19, 2013 1:38 pm






    GEEE....TEN TO THREE IN THE MORNING SOLOMON.......AND YOU ARE ONLY ONLINE WHEN YOUR BELOVED IS!!!!!!!!!>>>>>>>>>>>>SEEING AS SHE WAS ASLEEP AT MIDNITE HOW COME YA STILL ON???????????LMFOA....LIAR!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!LMAO


    Last edited by CRUNCH on Mon Aug 19, 2013 1:56 pm; edited 1 time in total
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    Post by CRUNCH on Mon Aug 19, 2013 1:40 pm











    "DEAR" I ONLY COME INTO TAGGED TO SPEAK WITH YOU"....SEEING AS THE VICTIM WAS THERE ONLY AT NIGHT....HMMMMMMMMMMMMMM.................YEP!!HES A HONEST BLOKE ISNT HE.....LMFAO NOT!!!!!!!!!!!!!!


    Last edited by CRUNCH on Mon Aug 19, 2013 1:52 pm; edited 1 time in total
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    Male Re: Solomon S the phd lecturer!!lmfao

    Post by CRUNCH on Mon Aug 19, 2013 1:46 pm



    LOTS OF LOGINS..................GEE WONDER WHO HES SCAMMING AS WELL????


    Last edited by CRUNCH on Mon Aug 19, 2013 1:50 pm; edited 1 time in total
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    Male Re: Solomon S the phd lecturer!!lmfao

    Post by CRUNCH on Mon Aug 19, 2013 1:48 pm




    AND OF COURSE...HE CONTINUOUSLY TELLS THE VICTIM"I ONLY COME IN TO TAGGED TO SPEAK WITH YOU.........YET FUNNY............SEEMS HES IN THERE CONSTANTLY..........LMFAO.....................EPIC FAIL SOLOMON!!!!!!!!EPIC!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
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    Post by CRUNCH on Mon Aug 19, 2013 2:25 pm

    BUT OF COURSE HE WILL STILL SAY HE ISNT A SCAMMER!!!!!!!!!!LMFAO....
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    Post by CRUNCH on Wed Aug 21, 2013 5:53 am

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    Post by CRUNCH on Wed Aug 21, 2013 5:54 am

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    Post by CRUNCH on Wed Aug 21, 2013 5:55 am

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    Male Re: Solomon S the phd lecturer!!lmfao

    Post by Anitha on Sat Jan 11, 2014 3:24 pm

    Are you sure this guy is a scammer?

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    Male active scammer?

    Post by Anitha on Wed Jan 15, 2014 11:32 am

    Solomon is not a scammer as stated on this website

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    Post by CRUNCH on Mon Oct 13, 2014 5:16 am

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    Post by CRUNCH on Mon Oct 13, 2014 5:20 am

    Olayinka S http://www.tagged.com/profile.html?uid=7281099313


    Last Active: 16 hours ago

    Profile Views: 19 times

    Profile Skin: Default

    Member Since: December 12, 2013



    Gender: Male

    Location: Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    Age: 41

    Relationship Status: Single

    Interested In: Friends, Dating, Serious Relationship

    Orientation: Straight
    About Me

    Music:

    Ragae, Hip hop, gospel
    Movies:

    American movie
    Sports:

    Foot ball, table tennis, swimming
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    Post by CRUNCH on Mon Oct 13, 2014 5:22 am

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